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Practical Plane Making (Part IV)


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Practical Planemaking 4

By W. J. Armour

Sash Fillister

Next to the plough the sash fillister (Fig. 36) is the most difficult to make. Views of the top, sole, and side of a sash fillister are given in Figs. 37, 38, and 39. The wood selected must be very dry and sound. The working corner is rebated out to let in the dovetail boxing (see Fig. 40), which is put in all the best work; this dovetail boxing is very fine work, and there are few planemakers tradesmen who can do it. It is absolutely necessary that it should fit in every way, as the greater part of the iron beds on to it, and, if it did not fit, it would spring when the pressure of the wedge was on it. The pattern of the dovetail boxing is varied somewhat by different manufacturers, but the London method is the one given here. In doing this work nine different planes are required; they are illustrated in Figs. 41 to 49.

It will be seen that the dovetail on the top is narrower and deeper than the dovetail on the side. Take the plane shown in Fig. 41, and holding it firmly to the top of the rebate, proceed to sink down until it stops; this makes a groove for the side dovetail. Next take the plane shown in Fig. 43, and holding it very firmly, with the bottom of the plane working in the bottom of groove, proceed to make the dovetail.

In the top dovetail, take the plane shown in Fig. 44, and do the same to the side dovetail; the dovetails in the stock of the plane have now been made. Next take a piece of clean Turkey box, cut diagonally, as in cutting out box for beads, so that it works half on the endway of the grain, cut off a slab 1 in. thick, and slip it down to the thick end of the rebate taken out of the plane. See which way the grain runs; when in the plane it should run from the hind end to the fore end. Always have the box as clean as possible, otherwise when finishing off it will chip out at mouth of iron or tooth, etc. Having got out the box, plane the sides square, so as to fit the sides of dovetail. Next take plane Fig. 45, and, with the fence working from the top of the boxwood, sink down until it stops; take plane Fig. 46, and do the same to the top of the box. The squares are now at a correct distance from the corner. Next take plane Fig. 49 and remove the wood so as to allow of the working of the skew-side planes (Figs. 47 and 48), and make the dovetails. It is in fitting in that great skill is needed, for everything has to be quite tight; this is secured by planing down to fit with the planes shown in Figs 43, 44, 47, 48, as to fit with the planes shown in Figs. 43, 44, 47, 48, as required. The box should go in with a firm tap of the hammer, although not too tight, for fear of splitting the wood; then make the place for the mouth and glue in.

Having finished the dovetail boxing let the glue dry for two days, then plane up and square the four sides (the size is 8 3/4 in. by 3 1/4 in. by 1 5/8 in.) and measure from fore end 4 1/8 in. for the bed line A B (Fig. 39). Allow 1/8 in. for mouth, strike from the bed line the pitch and carry across the top, measure 1 in. from line on top and strike the front of mortise, gauge 3/8 in. from the side for side of mortise, and make the mortise C D 3/8 in. wide. Next set out the stem holes in the same way as for a plough, and the keys for stems in the same way P P. Measure 2 3/8 in. for stop, take the stop and put to the line and scribe for width of stop, then place the side of stop to the top of stock and scribe for centre of screw G. Next measure 3 1/8 in. F G for tooth and strike the pitch and mortise line for sedge; measure from the sole 2 in., and from the top 5/16 in. for rebate, measure 7/16 in. from the side on the sole and 1/4 in. down for rebate on sole H J (Fig. 38). This completes the setting out of the stock. Next cut out the rebate for the hand hold, cut in the mouth and mortise the same as in a moulding plane. Make the stem holes the same way as for a plough, let in the stem, and plane the part where the fence is attached to stem down to a level of the sole of stock. Next let in the stop, taking care that it is fitted flat to the side, otherwise the shaving will get under and clog. Next bore a hole from the top for screw of stop and carry through past the mortise hole for stop for the point of screw to work in, and let in the top plate of stop; then let in the tooth, which should be very tight so as not to move when used; grind the iron and bed, the stem being ferruled, measure for the rebate on fence and stick the fence as for the plough (see Fig. 27), let in the diamond burrs on top of stem, and rivet together.

The End.

Part I   |   Part II   |   Part III   |   Part IV

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